High School Statutory Authority:
Increased mobility was made possible by a revolution in communications. In the earlier 18th century long-distance travel was rare and the idea of long-distance travel for pleasure was a contradiction in terms.
The speediest coach journey between London and Cambridge just 60 miles took… Models of communication Fragmentation and problems of interdisciplinary outlook have generated a wide range of discussion concerning the ways in which communication occurs and the processes it entails.
Obviously, all the critical elements in this question may be interpreted differently by scholars and writers in different disciplines. The simplicity of their model, its clarity, and its surface generality proved attractive to many students of communication in a number of disciplines, although it is neither the only model of the communication process extant nor is it universally accepted.
As originally conceived, the model contained five elements—an information source, a transmittera channel of transmission, a receiverand a destination—all arranged in linear order.
Messages electronic messages, initially were supposed to travel along this path, to be changed into electric energy by the transmitter, and to be reconstituted into intelligible language by the receiver. In time, the five elements of the model were renamed so as to specify components for other types of communication transmitted in various manners.
The information source was split into its components both source and message to provide a wider range of applicability. The six constituents of the revised model are 1 a source, 2 an encoder3 a message, 4 a channel, 5 a decoder, and 6 a receiver. For some communication systems, the components are as simple to specify as, for instance, 1 a person on a landline telephone, 2 the mouthpiece of the telephone, 3 the words spoken, 4 the electrical wires along which the words now electrical impulses travel, 5 the earpiece of another telephone, and 6 the mind of the listener.
In other communication systems, the components are more difficult to isolate—e. Begging a multitude of psychological, aestheticand sociological questions concerning the exact nature of each component, the linear model appeared, from the commonsense perspective, at least, to explain in general terms the ways in which certain classes of communication occurred.
It did not indicate the reason for the inability of certain communications—obvious in daily life—to fit its neat paradigm. Entropynegative entropy, and redundancy Another concept, first called by Shannon a noise source but later associated with the notion of entropy a principle derived from physicswas imposed upon the communication model.
Entropy is analogous in most communication to audio or visual static—that is, to outside influences that diminish the integrity of the communication and, possibly, distort the message for the receiver. Negative entropy may also occur in instances in which incomplete or blurred messages are nevertheless received intact, either because of the ability of the receiver to fill in missing details or to recognize, despite distortion or a paucity of information, both the intent and content of the communication.
Although rarely shown on diagrammatic models of this version of the communication process, redundancy —the repetition of elements within a message that prevents the failure of communication of information—is the greatest antidote to entropy.
Most written and spoken languages, for example, are roughly half-redundant. If 50 percent of the words of this article were taken away at random, there would still remain an intelligible—although somewhat peculiar—essay.
Similarly, if one-half of the words of a radio news commentator are heard, the broadcast can usually be understood.
Redundancy is apparently involved in most human activities, and, because it helps to overcome the various forms of entropy that tend to turn intelligible messages into unintelligible ones including psychological entropy on the part of the receiverit is an indispensable element for effective communication.
Messages are therefore susceptible to considerable modification and mediation. Entropy distorts, while negative entropy and redundancy clarify; as each occurs differentially in the communication process, the chances of the message being received and correctly understood vary.
Still, the process and the model of it remains conceptually static, because it is fundamentally concerned with messages sent from point to point and not with their results or possible influences upon sender and receiver.
Feedback To correct this flaw, the principle of feedback was added to the model and provided a closer approximation of interpersonal human interaction than was known theretofore.
This construct was derived from the studies of Norbert Wienerthe so-called father of the science of cybernetics. Certain types of common communications—holiday greeting cards, for instance—usually require little feedback.
Others, particularly interactions between human beings in conversation, cannot function without the ability of the message sender to weigh and calculate the apparent effect of his words on his listener. It is largely the aspect of feedback that provides for this model the qualities of a process, because each instance of feedback conditions or alters the subsequent messages.
Dynamic models Other models of communication processes have been constructed to meet the needs of students of communication whose interests differ from those of quantitatively oriented theorists like Shannon, Weaver, and Wiener. While the model described above displays some generality and shows simplicity, it lacks some of the predictive, descriptive, and analytic powers found in other approaches.
A psychologist, Theodore M.Published: Mon, 5 Dec China is a state of ceremonies since the ancient times while western countries also have their own etiquettes.
With the coming of economic globalization period, negotiation becomes the most common and useful activity day by day. This webpage is for Dr.
Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
Communication, in General. The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place. — George Bernard Shaw. If you cannot - in the long run - tell everyone what you have been doing, your doing has been worthless.
Types of nonverbal communication vary considerably based on culture and country of origin. For individuals working in the realm of international business, understanding how to effectively communicate with peers from across the world is a key competency for their professional wheelhouse.
One evening over dinner, I began to joke, as I often had before, about writing an essay called “Men Explain Things to Me.” Every writer has a stable of ideas that never make it to the racetrack, and I’d been trotting this pony out recreationally every once in a while.
Nonverbal Communication and Cultural Differences - Nonverbal communication has always played an important role in the entire communication process.