Conservative, rigid and structured, unless the danger of failure requires a more flexible attitude. People are expressive, and are allowed to show anger or emotions, if necessary. Be clear and concise about expectations and goals, and set clearly defined parameters.
The six dimensions of national culture are based on extensive research done by Professor Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov and their research teams.
The application of this research is used worldwide in both academic and professional management settings. Dimensions of national culture: The Hofstede model of national culture consists of six dimensions. The cultural dimensions represent independent preferences for one state of affairs over another that distinguish countries rather than individuals from each other.
The country scores on the dimensions are relative, in that we are all human and simultaneously we are all unique.
In other words, culture can only be used meaningfully by comparison. The model consists of the following dimensions: Power Distance Index PDI This dimension expresses the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.
The fundamental issue here is how a society handles inequalities among people. People in societies exhibiting a large degree of Power Distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. In societies with low Power Distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power.
Individualism versus Collectivism IDV The high side of this dimension, called Individualism, can be defined as a preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of only themselves and their immediate families.
Its opposite, Collectivism, represents a preference for a tightly-knit framework in society in which individuals can expect their relatives or members of a particular ingroup to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. Society at large is more competitive.
Its opposite, Femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented. Uncertainty Avoidance Index UAI The Uncertainty Avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity.
The fundamental issue here is how a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: Countries exhibiting strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour, and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas.
Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles. Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Normative Orientation LTO Every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and the future.
Societies prioritize these two existential goals differently. Societies who score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion.
Those with a culture which scores high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: In the academic environment, the terminology Monumentalism versus Flexhumility is sometimes also used. Indulgence versus Restraint IND Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun.
Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms. He analysed a large database of employee value scores collected within IBM between and The data covered more than 70 countries, from which Hofstede first used the 40 countries with the largest groups of respondents and afterwards extended the analysis to 50 countries and 3 regions.
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Jun 29, · According to Hofstede and his team, the Power Distance Index, or PDI, essentially refers to workplace hierarchy and unequal distribution of power.
"List of the Six Dimensions of Culture & How. In this study, we examined the validity of the measurement model and factor structure of Bass and Avolio's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Form 5X).
Executive Summary. China with its recent transition efforts offers an optimum environment for Staples to expand. There is a huge labor pool supplied by the world's largest population. Researching the Effect of Cultural Diversity on Group Work Outcomes - ABSTRACT This paper analyses the relationship between cultural diversity and workgroup outcomes (satisfaction with workgroup, and workgroup performance) in multicultural organizations, in the presence of moderating variables of intragroup conflicts (task, relationship and process conflicts).
While each of these dimensions was considered important in multinational team operations to operational level staff members in B-H, reported critical incidents tended to focus on the dimensions of independent-interdependent, egalitarian-status, and risk-restraint.