Freud used the analogy of an iceberg to describe the three levels of the mind. Freud described conscious mind, which consists of all the mental processes of which we are aware, and this is seen as the tip of the iceberg.
Historical overview[ edit ] The term "unconscious" German: Unbewusste was coined by the 18th-century German Romantic philosopher Friedrich Schelling in his System of Transcendental Idealismch. The idea of internalised unconscious processes in the mind was also instigated in antiquity and has been explored across a wide variety of cultures.
Unconscious aspects of mentality were referred to between and BC in the Hindu texts known as the Vedasfound today in Ayurvedic medicine. InEdmond Colsenet supports at the Sorbonne, a philosophy thesis on the unconscious.
Furthermore, 19th century German psychologists, Gustav Fechner and Wilhelm Wundthad begun to use the term in their experimental psychology, in the context of manifold, jumbled sense data that the mind organizes at an unconscious level before revealing it as a cogent totality in conscious form.
Sigmund Freud and his followers developed an account of the unconscious mind. It plays an important role in psychoanalysis. Freud divided the mind into the conscious mind or the ego and the unconscious mind.
The latter was then further divided into the id or instincts and drive and the superego or conscience. In this theory, the unconscious refers to the mental processes of which individuals make themselves unaware. He believed that significant psychic events take place "below the surface" in the unconscious mind,  like hidden messages from the unconscious.
He interpreted such events as having both symbolic and actual significance.
In psychoanalytic terms, the unconscious does not include all that is not conscious, but rather what is actively repressed from conscious thought or what a person is averse to knowing consciously.
Freud viewed the unconscious as a repository for socially unacceptable ideas, wishes or desires, traumatic memories, and painful emotions put out of mind by the mechanism of psychological repression.
However, the contents did not necessarily have to be solely negative. In the psychoanalytic view, the unconscious is a force that can only be recognized by its effects—it expresses itself in the symptom.
In a sense, this view places the conscious self as an adversary to its unconscious, warring to keep the unconscious hidden. Unconscious thoughts are not directly accessible to ordinary introspectionbut are supposed to be capable of being "tapped" and "interpreted" by special methods and techniques such as meditation, free association a method largely introduced by Freuddream analysis, and verbal slips commonly known as a Freudian slipexamined and conducted during psychoanalysis.
Seeing as these unconscious thoughts are normally cryptic, psychoanalysts are considered experts in interpreting their messages. For example, "I decided to take a summer curse".
This example shows a slip of the word "course" where the speaker accidentally used the word curse which would show that they have negative feelings about having to do this. After these observations, he came to the conclusion that psychological disturbances are largely caused by personal conflicts existing at the unconscious level.
His psychoanalytic theory acts to explain personality, motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior. He agreed with Freud that the unconscious is a determinant of personality, but he proposed that the unconscious be divided into two layers:Jung ended up calling it individuation - the now familiar willingness to become oneself, with the assumption that one has a self to become - but it was called different things throughout his life: his number two personality, his father (never his mother), Nietzsche, the unconscious, Freud, psychoanalysis, analytical psychology, alchemy, the.
Freud - The Key Ideas: Teach Yourself: An introduction to Freud's pioneering work on psychoanalysis, sex, dreams and the unconscious Mar 27, by Ruth Snowden.
Secondly, the unconscious knows no negation, only “contents, cathected with greater or lesser strength” (p), and it is the mechanisms of what Freud labels the primary psychical process, a mode of functioning unique to the unconscious and distinguishable from the ‘secondary psychical processes of the conscious’, that determine the ways in which unconscious contents give up and take up their cathexis.
Therefore, according to Freud’s new vision of the mind, the Ego is a mixed intrapsychic structure characterized by conscious, preconscious and unconscious parts and functions. Freud’s Ego at the stage of introducing this model was relatively passive and .
I. Justification for the Concept of the Unconscious Our right to assume the existence of something mental that is unconscious and to employ that assumption for the . [The Unconscious] The Problem of the Unconscious is the Problem of Psychology; The problem of the unconscious in psychology is, in the forcible words of Lipps (), less a psychological problem than the problem of psychology.