See Article History Alternative Titles: Poland is located at a geographic crossroads that links the forested lands of northwestern Europe to the sea lanes of the Atlantic Ocean and the fertile plains of the Eurasian frontier. Now bounded by seven nations, Poland has waxed and waned over the centuries, buffeted by the forces of regional history.
He explained that between the 11th and 15th centuries not only Christianization and its cultural consequences were implemented, but well-defined social features emerged in Central Europe based on Western characteristics.
The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe. These phenomena appeared in the middle of the 13th century in Central European countries.
There were self-governments of towns, counties and parliaments. Romania Beforethe industrialization that had developed in Western and Central Europe and the United States did not extend in any significant way to the rest of the world.
Even in Eastern Europeindustrialization lagged far behind. Russiafor example, remained largely rural and agricultural, and its autocratic rulers kept the peasants in serfdom.
However, the very first concept mixed science, politics and economy — it was strictly connected with intensively growing German economy and its aspirations to dominate a part of European continent called Mitteleuropa. The German term denoting Central Europe was so fashionable that other languages started referring to it when indicating territories from Rhine to Vistulaor even Dnieperand from the Baltic Sea to the Balkans.
Partsch's book of Another time, the term Central Europe became connected to the German plans of political, economic and cultural domination. The "bible" of the concept was Friedrich Naumann 's book Mitteleuropa  in which he called for an economic federation to be established after the war.
|What Countries Are in Central Europe? | attheheels.com||November 8, - Operation Torch begins U. November 11, - Germans and Italians invade unoccupied Vichy France.|
|Poland Map / Geography of Poland / Map of Poland - attheheels.com||Poland was united as a country in the first half of the 10th century, and adopted Catholicism as the state religion in AD.|
|Poland – Travel guide at Wikivoyage||The Piast monarchy The early state The terms Poland and Poles appear for the first time in medieval chronicles of the late 10th century. The land that the Poles, a West Slavic people, came to inhabit was covered by forests with small areas under cultivation where clans grouped themselves into numerous tribes.|
|Brief history of Poland.||Bratislava There are way more cities of interest in Central Europe than would be convenient to list in one article.|
Naumann's idea was that the federation would have at its centre Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire but would also include all European nations outside the Anglo-French alliance, on one side, and Russia, on the other.
The revival of the idea may be observed during the Hitler era. The centre of interest was moved to its eastern part — the countries that have re appeared on the map of Europe: CzechoslovakiaHungary and Poland.
Central Europe ceased to be the area of German aspiration to lead or dominate and became a territory of various integration movements aiming at resolving political, economic and national problems of "new" states, being a way to face German and Soviet pressures.
The interwar period brought new elements to the concept of Central Europe. Before World War I, it embraced mainly German states Germany, Austrianon-German territories being an area of intended German penetration and domination — German leadership position was to be the natural result of economic dominance.
At that time the scientists took an interest in the idea: Mitteleuropa[ edit ] The Mitteleuropa: In this view Bohemia and Moraviawith its dual Western Slavic and Germanic heritage, combined with the historical element of the " Sudetenland ", is a core region illustrating the problems and features of the entire Central European region.
The term "Mitteleuropa" conjures up negative historical associations among some elderly people, although the Germans have not played an exclusively negative role in the region.
In fact, many people from the new states of Germany do not identify themselves as being part of Western Europe and therefore prefer the term "Mitteleuropa". The post-World War II period brought blocking of the research on Central Europe in the Eastern Bloc countries, as its every result proved the dissimilarity of Central Europe, which was inconsistent with the Stalinist doctrine.
On the other hand, the topic became popular in Western Europe and the United States, much of the research being carried out by immigrants from Central Europe. An Analysis of a Geographical Term  most Central European states were unable to preserve their political independence and became Soviet Satellite Europe.
Besides Austriaonly the marginal Central European states of Finland and Yugoslavia preserved their political sovereignty to a certain degree, being left out of any military alliances in Europe.
Current views[ edit ] Geopolitical Challenges - Panel on the Future of Europe Rather than a physical entity, Central Europe is a concept of shared history which contrasts with that of the surrounding regions. The issue of how to name and define the Central European region is subject to debates.
Very often, the definition depends on the nationality and historical perspective of its author. Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth — UkrainianBelarusian and Lithuanian historians, in cooperation since with Polish historians, insist on the importance of the concept.
Habsburg-ruled lands Central Europe as the area of cultural heritage of the Habsburg Empire later Austria-Hungary — a concept which is popular in regions along the Danube River: AustriaHungarythe Czech RepublicSlovakiaCroatiaSlovenialarge parts of Romania and Serbiaand smaller parts of Poland and Ukraine A concept underlining the links connecting Belarus and Ukraine with Russia and treating the Russian Empire together with the whole Slavic Orthodox population as one entity — this position is taken by the Russian historiography.
A concept putting an accent on the links with the West, especially from the 19th century and the grand period of liberation and formation of Nation-states — this idea is represented by in the South-Eastern states, which prefer the enlarged concept of the "East Centre" expressing their links with the Western culture.
For example, Lithuaniaa fair share of Belarus and western Ukraine are in Eastern Europe today, but years ago they were in Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, according to Romanian researcher Maria Bucur this very ambitious project suffers from the weaknesses imposed by its scope almost years of history.
The term is mostly used to denominate the territory between the Schelde to Vistula and from the Danube to the Moravian Gate.Poland is a Central European country, because that is where a center of Europe happens to be.
Views · View Upvoters George Parker, works at Self-Employment. In Kazimierz Wielki (Casimir the Great) was crowned king and went on to become one of Poland’s most memorable kings. He reigned over a period of peace in Poland’s history due in part to his reliance on diplomacy, rather than war, to resolve disputes with neighbours.
The history of Poland has its roots in the One of the last initiatives of the brief reform era was a nuclear weapons–free zone in Central Europe proposed in by Adam of the Polish People's Republic was amended to eliminate references to the "leading role" of the communist party and the country was renamed the "Republic of Poland".
Poland country profile.
28 May the centrist Civic Platform in the closest presidential contest in Poland's history. is the largest .
A Thousand Years. Poland’s roots go back to the 10th century, leaving a thousand years of twists and turns and kings and castles to explore. WWII history buffs are well served.
Sing the Polish National Anthem "Whoever we are, wherever we live" - with these words Polish program "Niepodległa" (Independent) invites everyone, from the sea to the Tartas and all over the world, to sing the Polish National Anthem on 11 November at noon.