We see Michael Psellus in the 11th Century surprisingly contrasting "the ancient and lesser Rome, and the later, more powerful city" [! It is now hard to grasp Constantinople as a greater city than Rome, but there would have been little in Rome's favor in Psellus' day.
In spite of his modest birth, he was well respected by the Senate, but he was without his own army. He was killed by the praetorians at the end of Marchafter a three-month reign. The action of the praetorians roused the ire of the provincial armies.
The army of the Danube, which was the most powerful as well as the closest to Rome, appointed Septimius Severus in May Severus soon had to face two competitors, supported, like himself, by their own troops: After having temporarily neutralized Albinus by accepting him as Caesar heir apparentSeptimius marched against Niger, whose troops, having come from Egypt and Syria, were already occupying Byzantium.
The Danubian legions were victorious, and Niger was killed at the end of ; Antioch and Byzantium were pillaged after a long siege.
Septimius even invaded Mesopotamia, for the Parthians had supported Niger. But this campaign was quickly interrupted: He was supported by the troops, by the population, and even by the senators in Rome. In February he was defeated and killed in a difficult battle near his capital of Lugdunum, which, in turn, was almost devastated.
Septimius Severus remained the sole master of the empire, but the pillagings, executions, and confiscations left a painful memory.
A few months later, in the summer ofhe launched a second Mesopotamian campaign, this time against the Parthian king Vologases IVwho had attacked the frontier outpost Nisibis conquered two years previously by the Romans.
Septimius Severus was again victorious. Having arrived at the Parthian capitals Seleucia and Ctesiphonhe was defeated near Hatra but in obtained an advantageous peace: Rome retained a part of Mesopotamia, together with Nisibis, the new province being governed by an eques.
After having inspected the East, the emperor returned to Rome in He died at Eboracum York in February Septimius Severus belonged to a Romanized Tripolitan family that had only recently attained honours. He was born in Leptis Magna in North Africa and favoured his native land throughout his reign.
He was married to Julia Domna of Emesa, a Syrian woman from an important priestly family, and was surrounded by Easterners. He had pursued a senatorial career and had proved himself a competent general, but he was above all a good administrator and a jurist.
Disliking Romans, Italians, and senators, he deliberately relied on the faithful Danubian army that had brought him to power, and he always showed great concern for the provincials and the lower classes. Although he had sought to appropriate the popularity of the Antonines to his own advantage by proclaiming himself the son of Marcus Aurelius and by naming his own son Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, he in fact carried out a totally different policy—a brutal yet realistic policy that opened careers to new social classes.
Indifferent to the prestige of the Senate, where he had a great many enemies, he favoured the equites. The army thus became the seedbed of the equestrian order and was the object of all of his attentions.
The ready forces were increased by the creation of three new legions commanded by equites, and one of these, the Second Parthica, was installed near Rome.
Unlike Vespasianwho also owed his power to the army but who knew how to keep it in its proper place, Septimius Severus, aware of the urgency of external problems, established a sort of military monarchy.
The praetorian cohorts doubled their ranks, and the dismissal of the old staff of Italian origin transformed the Praetorian Guard into an imperial guard, in which the elite of the Danube army were the most important element. The auxiliary troops were increased by the creation of 1,man units infantry cohorts and cavalry troops, sometimes outfitted with mail armour in the Parthian manner.
The careers of noncommissioned officers emerging from the ranks now opened onto new horizons: Thus, a simple Illyrian peasant might attain high posts: Their salaries were increased, and donativa were distributed more frequently; thenceforth, soldiers were fed at the expense of the provincials. Veterans received lands, mostly in Syria and Africa.
The right of legitimate marriage, previously refused by Augustus, was granted to almost all of the soldiers, and the right to form collegia private associations was given to noncommissioned officers.
The reflection of this step in the content of precious metal in silver coinage recalls a point made earlier: The administrative accomplishments of Septimius Severus were of great importance: Italy lost its privileges and found itself subjected, like all the other provinces, to the new annonaa tax paid in kind, which assured the maintenance of the army and of the officials.
The consequent increase in expenditures—for administration, for the salaries and the donativa of the soldiers, for the maintenance of the Roman plebsand for construction—obliged the emperor to devalue the denarius in The government from ancient Rome had a big impact on our modern government.
Our senate is modeled after the Ancient Roman government. Although there are some similarities there are many differences between the Roman government and the U.S government.
It has stayed as the United states. If Washington ruled and taxed the citizens of South America, Canada and parts of Russia I would think the comparisons stood, especially if they established another capital in Argentina.
But the truth is most people who compare America to Rome have no understanding of . The most telling similarity between Ancient Greece and modern day America is the idea of democracy practiced both then and now.
Both Ancient Greece and the present-day United States practice. Slavery in ancient Rome played an important role in society and the economy. Besides manual labour, slaves performed many domestic services, and might be employed at highly skilled jobs and professions.
Therefore, the issues do not suggest a tie specifically between modern America and ancient Rome. In other words, the assumption that America will suffer the same fate as the Roman Republic is coincidental – any comparison of two dominant economic, military, or international countries, regardless of the type of government, would produce multiple parallels.
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